Peripheral Vascular Disease

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peripheral vascular disease, PVD, PAD, periperal artery disease,

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Peripheral Vascular disease (PVD) or Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) are characterized by decreased circulation to the extremities. There are many systemic conditions that can cause or facilitate blockages in the arteries serving blood to the legs, feet, and toes. Symptoms of peripheral vascular disease can include edema, discoloration, cold feet, pain, cramping, night cramps, night pain, claudication (cramping of calves when walking), ulcerations, dry gangrene, pain, and auto amputation. Typically we will find a combination of these symptoms. Peripheral vascular disease predisposes sufferers to infections, ulcerations, amputation, and death.


Non-invasive vascular studies are the simplest and least invasive examinations that can be done to evaluate the circulation to extremities.  There are many different studies done to assess the vascular supply including doppler, taking pulses, ankle/brachial index (ABI), plethysmography, capillary fill time, and many others.  Some of these test are more reliable than others and some can be miss leading- they must all be looked at and put together like a puzzle.  Often times these tests are really just used to see if invasive studies are necessary.

Arteries and Veins of the leg

Invasive vascular studies or angiograms are used to diagnose blockages in the vessels serving the legs.  Identifying blockages is the first step in correcting the real problems- blockages.


The easiest way to improve circulation is EXERCISE!!!  Yes, it can be that simple for some.  Stay active.  Check with your family doctor, tell them, you want to exercise, ask for input and what is safe exercise for you.  Get up and move, watch your diet manage systemic problems.

If exercise is not an option for you, you may require  the assistance of a vascular surgeon. They can manually open the artery or bypass the blockage in many cases.  It is important to note that all surgeries do come with risks including death.

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